Arrest & Detention of JD in Execution Petition

One of the modes of execution of a decree for payment of money, exceeding Rupees two thousand, is arrest and detention of the judgment debtor (JD) in a civil prison. The purpose of this write up is to discusses the mode and procedure for putting a judgment debtor (JD) in civil prison, as part of execution of a decree, when he is unable to satisfy the decree against him.

Admission & Its Relevancy u/s 17- 23 & 31 of IEA

Admission, under Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (IEA), is a statement in oral, documentary, or electronic form by a party to the case or his authorised agent or by the other parties the statute permits. The statement must be indicative of some inference relating to the matter in dispute or a related fact. By admission the person agrees that the fact asserted by the other party is true. Admission of fact in court helps in dispensing with the production of evidence during judicial proceedings.

Criminal Conspiracy and related Offences

A conspiracy takes place when two or more people make an agreement to commit or cause to be done, an illegal act or a legal act through illegal means and to take some step consequent to the agreement. Conspiracy does not require that the illegal act to be completed. A group of individuals can be convicted of conspiracy to commit burglary even if the actual burglary never happens. In a conspiracy an accused can be charged with both the offences: the conspiracy to commit a crime, and the crime itself.

HC can’t direct Police not to Arrest the Accused

The High Court (HC) cannot direct the investigation agency not to arrest the accused during the course of investigation or to ask the Trial Magistrate to admit the accused on bail while dismissing the application of the accused for quashing the Fist Information Report (FIR) under Section 482 Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (CrPC).

Family Court can declare extra judicial Muslim Divorce

Kerala High Court (HC) in Asbi K N v Hashim M U has formulated some guidelines for the Family Court to be followed when any party files a petition seeking its endorsement to an extrajudicial divorce duly concluded under Muslim Personal Law. The judgement was delivered on 12 October 2021. The HC declared the nature of enquiry and trial procedures to be made by the Family Court in such cases. The courts can declare such marital status under Section 7 of the Family Court Act, 1984.

Can a Video be treated as a Document?

The seminal question considered by the Supreme Court (SC) in P. Gopalkrishnan @ Dileep v The State Of Kerala filed against the Kerala High Court (HC) judgement is whether the contents of the memory card/pen drive in the form of video of an incident in question, submitted to the trial court along with the police report, can be treated as document as such or material object.

Opinion or Expert Evidence: Its Relevancy

The relevancy of opinion evidence is dealt with in Sections 45 to 51 of the Indian Evidence Act (IEA). Opinion evidence in general is inadmissible. But two kinds of opinion evidence have relevance and hence admissible in judicial proceedings: one is expert opinion and the other is opinion of non-experts in some exceptional cases, as specified in the IEA.

Commission for Local Investigation under CPC

In a civil suit, if the court finds that a local investigation is required or proper the court can issue a commission to a person as it thinks fit and ask him to make an investigation and report the matter thereon to the court, under Section75(b) and Order 26 rule 9 of the Civil Procedure Code (CPC).

Cancellation of void or voidable Instruments

When a person against whom a void or voidable written instrument exists and he has reasonable apprehension that such instrument is left outstanding it may cause him serious injury, he can sue to have it adjudged and cancelled, under Section 31 of the Specific Relief Act, 1963.

Medical Examination of an Accused under CrPC

When a person is arrested on the charge of an offence, the Police Officer not below the rank of a Sub Inspector or a person under his direction can ask a medical practitioner to make an examination of the person arrested as is reasonably necessary to ascertain the facts which may afford such evidence of commission of the offence.