Corroboration of Evidence u/s 157 of IEA

A former statement given by a witness before any authority legally competent to investigate the case at or about the time when the fact took place, needs to be proved to corroborate any later testimony (relating to the same fact or event) given by the witness in the court. Then the former statement is admitted as corroborative evidence when it is consistent with the later testimony, under Section 157 of the Indian Evidence Act.

Use of Documents under RTI as Evidence in Courts

The Section 65 (f) of the IEA allows certified copies permitted under the IEA or by any other law in force in India to be treated as secondary evidence. The RTI Act falls within the ambit of "any other law in force in India.” Therefore the certified copies obtained through the RTI Act can be treated as secondary evidence and can be admitted in court and they can be presumed to be true, unlike a private document.

Proving a Will when attesting Witness is not Found

An instrument, such as a Will, mortgage deed, or gift deed, which needs to be compulsory attested as per law, shall not be used in evidence, unless one attesting witness has been called to the court for proving its execution, if the attesting witness is alive, living with in the sphere of the process of the court, and can give evidence, under Section 68 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (IEA).

On Providing Oral Evidence relating to Documents

Two kinds of evidence can be produced before a court : they are all statements which the court permits and all documents including electronic records produced before the court for its inspection. Normally oral evidence cannot be provided to prove contents of documents but in specified situations oral evidence can be given in proving contents of documents.

Contradictions in Cross Examination u/s 145 IEA

The term contradiction, in criminal law, refers to the same witness making two contradicting statements in two different stages in a judicial proceeding. Such contradictions are of two kinds: direct contradictions and contradictions by omissions. Making some sort of alterations or improvements in the prior statement and subsequent statement by a witness can also be termed as contradiction by omission.

The Art of Cross Examination

Cross examination is the examination of a witness in a legal proceeding by the adverse party. It takes place after examination-in-chief: the examination of a witness by the party who calls him. Cross examination is followed by re-examination: the examination of the witness subsequent to the cross examination by the party who called him.

Child Witness is Competent to Give Evidence

All persons are competent to testify as a witness under Section 118 of the Indian Evidence Act. But a person who is unable to understand the question put to him or to give relational answer to the question owning to tender age, extreme old age, disease of mind or body or any other cause is not a competent witness. In criminal case, the basic test of competence is whether the person is able to understand questions put to him as a witness and give answers to them which can be understood.

Indian Evidence Act in a Nutshell

The law of evidence plays a great role in administration of justice. For that it is essential to provide reliable, relevant and admissible evidence to establish the substantive rights of the contesting parties in a court of law. The law makes the job of providing and proving evidence foolproof.