Framing of Issues in a Civil Suit

What the term issue means

The term “issue” in a civil case means a disputed question relating to rival contentions in a suit. It is the focal point of disagreement, argument or decision. It is the point on which a case itself is decided in favour of one side or the other, by the court.

The court cannot frame any issues in a court case when no dispute exists between the parties.

For example, a plaintiff says the defendant borrowed Rs 10 lakh from him. The defendant denies it. It is an affirmation by one party and denial by the other. Then there arises a distinct dispute and that dispute is termed an “issue”. The court can then frame issues based on the facts of the case and proceed with it.

Making Cross examination Effective

What the cross examination is

Cross examination is the examination of a witness in a legal proceeding by the adverse party.

It takes place after examination-in-chief: the examination of a witness by the party who calls him. Cross examination is followed by re-examination: the examination of the witness subsequent to the cross examination by the party who called him. The section 137 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (IEA) defines these terms.

The Chapter X (Section 135 to 166) of the IEA deals with legal provisions relating to examination of witnesses. But the examination of witness is much more than what the law speaks of, in terms of skills needed, quality ensured and the outcome it brings out in the process. This write up is exclusively on cross examination.

Don’t confuse cross examination with a deposition of witness. Deposition is to find out information but cross examination is to ascertain the truth of the facts in question.

The Professional Standards an Advocate should Keep

The advocate’s profession is an esteemed one which seeks to promote dispensation of justice. An advocate in India has to submit to some written and unwritten code of conduct and ethical regulations so long as he remains in his profession.

Power to make Preventive Arrest by Police

The Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (CrPC) provides not only for taking punitive action on crimes already committed but also for taking possible measures to prevent commissioning of crimes, as well.

Wrongful prosecution: The remedies proposed


Wrongful prosecution of innocent persons including prolonged incarceration of them has become quite a common practice nowadays. In general, the term wrongful prosecution includes every act intended to commit a person to confinement or trial contrary to what the law prescribes.